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The fallopian tubes extend from the uterus, one on each side, and both open near an ovary. During ovulation, the released egg (ovum) enters a fallopian tube and is swept along by tiny hairs towards the uterus.
Salpingitis is inflammation of the fallopian tubes. Almost all cases are caused by bacterial infection, including sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhoea and chlamydia. The inflammation prompts extra fluid secretion or even pus to collect inside the fallopian tube. Infection of one tube normally leads to infection of the other, since the bacteria migrates via the nearby lymph vessels.
Salpingitis is one of the most common causes of female infertility. Without prompt treatment, the infection may permanently damage the fallopian tube so that the eggs released each menstrual cycle can’t meet up with sperm. Scarring and blockage of the fallopian tubes is the most frequent long-term complication of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and so this condition can sometimes be referred to as PID. However, the umbrella term of PID includes other infections of the female reproductive system, such as the uterus and ovaries.
Symptoms of salpingitis
In milder cases, salpingitis may have no symptoms. This means the fallopian tubes may become damaged without the woman even realising she has an infection. The symptoms of salpingitis may include:
- abnormal vaginal discharge, such as unusual colour or smell
- spotting between periods
- dysmenorrhoea (painful periods)
- pain during ovulation
- uncomfortable or painful sexual intercourse
- abdominal pain on both sides
- lower back pain
- frequent urination
- nausea and vomiting
- the symptoms usually appear after the menstrual period.
Types of salpingitis
Salpingitis is usually categorised as either acute or chronic. In acute salpingitis, the fallopian tubes become red and swollen, and secrete extra fluid so that the inner walls of the tubes often stick together. The tubes may also stick to nearby structures such as the intestines. Sometimes, a fallopian tube may fill and bloat with pus. In rare cases, the tube ruptures and causes a dangerous infection of the abdominal cavity (peritonitis). Chronic salpingitis usually follows an acute attack. The infection is milder, longer lasting and may not produce many noticeable symptoms.
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Causes of salpingitis
In nine out of 10 cases of salpingitis, bacteria are the cause. Some of the most common bacteria responsible for salpingitis include:
- gonococcus (which causes gonorrhoea)
The bacteria must gain access to the woman’s reproductive system for infection to take place. The bacteria can be introduced in a number of ways, including:
- sexual intercourse
- insertion of an IUD (intra-uterine device)
Lifestyle risk factors of salpingitis
Lifestyle factors that significantly increase a woman’s risk of contracting salpingitis include:
- engaging in sexual intercourse without a condom
- prior infection with a sexually transmitted disease.
Complications of salpingitis
Without treatment, salpingitis can cause a range of complications, including:
- Further infection – the infection may spread to nearby structures, such as the ovaries or uterus.
- Infection of sex partners – the woman’s partner or partners may contract the bacteria and become infected too.
- Tubo-ovarian abscess – about 15 per cent of women with salpingitis develop an abscess, which requires hospitalisation.
- Ectopic pregnancy – a blocked fallopian tube prevents the fertilised egg from entering the uterus. The embryo then starts growing inside the confined space of the fallopian tube. The risk of ectopic pregnancy for a woman with prior salpingitis or other form of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is around one in 20.
- Infertility – the fallopian tube may become deformed or scarred to such an extent that the egg and sperm are unable to meet. After one bout of salpingitis or other PID, a woman’s risk of infertility is about 15 per cent. This rises to 50 per cent after three bouts.
Diagnosis of salpingitis
Diagnosing salpingitis involves a number of tests, including:
- general examination – to check for localised tenderness and enlarged lymph glands
- pelvic examination – to check for tenderness and discharge
- blood tests – to check the white blood cell count and other factors that indicate infection
- mucus swab – a smear is taken to be cultured and examined in a laboratory so that the type of bacteria can be identified
- laparoscopy – in some cases, the fallopian tubes may need to be viewed by a slender instrument inserted through abdominal incisions.
Treatment for salpingitis
Treatment depends on the severity of the condition, but may include:
- antibiotics – to kill the infection, which is successful in around 85 per cent of cases
- hospitalisation – including intravenous administration of antibiotics
- surgery – if the condition resists drug treatment.
Medically reviewed by Debra Rose Wilson, PhD, MSN, RN, IBCLC, AHN-BC, CHT on February 28, 2019 — Written by Shelby Deering
Nature’s 9 Most Powerful Medicinal Plants and the Science Behind Them
Today, we live in a time when manufactured medicines and prescriptions prevail, but do they have to be the only approach to healing?
Even with all of these engineered options at our fingertips, many people find themselves turning back to the medicinal plants that started it all: Herbal remedies that have the ability to heal and boost physical and mental well-being.
In fact, at the beginning of the 21st century, 11 percentTrusted Source of the 252 drugs considered “basic and essential” by the World Health Organization were “exclusively of flowering plant origin.” Drugs like codeine, quinine, and morphine all contain plant-derived ingredients.
While these manufactured drugs have certainly become paramount in our lives, it can be comforting to know that the power of nature is on our side, and these herbal choices are available to complement our health practices.
But the extent of the power they hold is also still being explored. These alternatives aren’t cure-alls, and they aren’t perfect. Many carry the same risks and side effects as manufactured medicines. Many of them are sold with unfounded promises.
However, many herbs and teas offer harmless subtle ways to improve your health. Pay attention to what the evidence says about each herb’s effectiveness as well as potential interactions or safety issues. Avoid using herbs for infants and children and for those who are pregnant and breastfeeding. Most herbs haven’t been tested for safety for those who are vulnerable, and trying herbs isn’t worth the risk.
With this cautionary tale in mind, choosing the right plant can seem difficult to someone who simply wants to feel better without taking medication. That’s why, with the help of specialist Debra Rose Wilson, we’re looking at the most effective and therapeutic plants — which have strong scientific evidence to support their safe use.
Making decisions about herbs along with more traditional medicinal approaches is something you and your healthcare practitioner can address together. At times, Wilson notes, ingesting the plants can have even less risk than taking concentrated, manufactured supplements, as there’s more risk of contamination of the product with the manufacture processes. It’s a wonderful way to experience their effects and the satisfaction of growing them yourself. Herbs can also be a way to add a needed nutrient.
However, both plants and supplements, which aren’t regulated by the Food and Drug Administration for safety or quality, can have questionable dosage and might have a risk of contamination. Keep this in mind before choosing supplements from the shelf.
If you’d like to add some medicinal plants to your wellness regimen, Wilson sifted through the latest studies and provides her own ratings system for our list.
These plants have the most numerous high-quality studies and are the safer choices among herbal remedies. She’s marked “0” as unsafe with no research, and “5” as completely safe with ample research. Many of these plants are somewhere between 3 and 4, according to Wilson.
We hope this guide will act as a starting point to those who wish to integrate herbal remedies into their lives and arrive armed with knowledge. As always, speak with your doctor before starting any new health treatment.
As one of the oldest tree species, gingko is also one of the oldest homeopathic plants and a key herb in Chinese medicine. The leaves are used to create capsules, tablets, and extracts, and when dried, can be consumed as a tea.
It’s perhaps best-known for its ability to boost brain health. Studies say that gingko can treat patients with mild to moderate dementiaTrusted Source, and can slow cognition decline in dementia and Alzheimer’s disease.
Recent research is looking into a component that can help diabetes, and there continue to be more studies, including an animal study that says it might influence bone healing.
INTERESTING FACTThe gingko tree is considered a living fossil, with fossils dating from 270 million years ago. These trees can live up to 3,000 years.
Gingko could be beneficial for:
- Alzheimer’s disease
- eye health
- bone healing
Things to consider
- Long-term use may increase chance of thyroid and liver cancer, which has been seen in rats.
- It’s known to be hard on the liver, so liver enzymes may need to be monitored.
- It can interact with blood thinners.
- Gingko seeds are poisonous if ingested.
- Side effects can include headache, upset stomach, dizziness, and allergic reaction.
- Gingko use needs to be discussed with your doctor because of numerous drug interactions.
Safety: used as an herb: 5/5; used as a supplement: 4/5
With its brilliant orange hue, it’s impossible to miss a bottle of turmeric sitting on a spice shelf. Originating in India, turmeric is believed to have anticancer properties and can prevent DNA mutations.
As an anti-inflammatory, it can be taken as a supplement and it’s been used topically for people with arthritis who wish to relieve discomfort. It’s used worldwide as a cooking ingredient, which makes it a delicious, antioxidant-richTrusted Source addition to many dishes.
INTERESTING FACTTurmeric has been used as a medicinal herb for 4,000 years. It’s a tentpole of an Indian alternative medicine practice called Ayurveda.
Turmeric could be beneficial for:
- pain caused by inflammatory diseases, like arthritis
- preventing cancer
- stopping DNA mutations
- several skin diseases
Things to consider
- When used as a supplement, people tend to take too much, so it can be difficult to trust the dosage and quality. Safety increases when ingested as an herb in cooking or tea.
- Long-term use can potentially cause stomach problems.
- Turmeric has low bioavailability. Consuming with pepper can help your body absorb more of its benefits.
Safety: topically: 4.5/5; orally: 3/5
The vibrant yellow evening primrose flower produces an oil that’s thought to alleviate the symptoms of PMS and skin conditions like eczema.
Studies that are available on this oil tend to be all over the map, but there are studies that are stronger than others. For example, some studies have found that evening primrose oil has anti-inflammatory properties. It’s been known to help with conditions such as atopic dermatitis and diabetic neuropathyTrusted Source. It can also help with other health concerns, such as breast pain.
Recent research points to improving the quality of life for patients with multiple sclerosisTrusted Source, changing hormones and insulin sensitivity in those dealing with polycystic ovary syndrome, and using it topically to improve mild dermatitis.
According to these studies, evening primrose oil might just be the Swiss Army knife of the medicinal plant world. The caveat is that it can interact with several medications. More research is coming, and the applications are promising.
INTERESTING FACTEvening primrose flowers are also called moonflowers because they bloom as the sun begins to set. People often say they smell like lemons.
Evening primrose oil could be beneficial for:
- mild skin conditions
- breast pain
- diabetic neuropathy
- multiple sclerosis
- blood pressure
Things to consider
- interacts with some blood-clotting medications
- safety during pregnancy is uncertain
- may interfere with drug absorption during HIV treatment
- interacts with lithium for bipolar disorder
- long-term use may not be safe
Flax seed, also available as an oil, is one of the safer choices among plant-based dietary supplements. Harvested for thousands of years, today flax seed is praised for its antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory benefits.
Although more research needs to be done with human subjects, one study says that flax seed can help prevent colon cancer.
Another studyTrusted Source cites that flax seed has the ability to reduce blood pressure. When consumed, it can even aid in reducing obesity. Many people add flax seed and flaxseed meal to oatmeal and smoothies, and it’s also available in the form of tablets, oil (which can be put into capsules), and flour.
The best way to add flax seed is through your diet. Sprinkle ground seeds on cereal or salad, cook in hot cereal, stew, homemade breads, or smoothies. Add flaxseed oil to salad dressing.
INTERESTING FACTFlax seeds are one of a handful of plant-based sources for omega-3 fatty acids. Other sources include chia seeds, walnuts, and soybeans.
Flax seed could be beneficial for:
- decreasing obesity
- regulating blood pressure
- preventing colon cancer
- hot flashes
Things to consider
- Flax seed can affect estrogen production in women, especially if they have a history of cancer or are pregnant.
- Don’t eat raw or unripe flax seeds, as they can be toxic.
The tea tree, which is native to Australia, produces an oil that’s long been thought to be beneficial for skin conditions, including mild acne, athlete’s foot, small wounds, dandruff, insect bites, and other inflammatory skin conditions.
There needs to be further study into acne and scalp use, but for now, there’s a degree of research into the antimicrobial superpowers of tea tree oil on wounds and topical infections.
One recent study said that tea tree oil slowed the growth of acne-causing microbes. It’s commonly used as a highly concentrated essential oil.
Wilson recommends that tea tree oil, as with all essential oils, should be diluted in a carrier oil. She adds that it often already comes diluted in a variety of skin care products and creams.
INTERESTING FACTTea tree oil is derived from the leaves of a tree that’s native to Queensland and New South Wales, Australia.
Tea tree oil could be beneficial for:
- athlete’s foot
- insect bites
Things to consider
- Tea tree oil is poisonous if taken orally.
- Your skin could experience an allergic reaction.
- It may influence hormones.
- Long-term use isn’t recommended.
Echinacea is a lot more than those pretty, purple coneflowers you see dotting gardens. These blooms have been used for centuries as medicine in the form of teas, juice, and extracts. Today, they can be taken as powders or supplements.
The best-known use of echinacea is to shorten symptoms of the common coldTrusted Source, but more studies are needed to verify this benefit and to understand how echinacea boosts immunity when a virus is present.
Generally, save a few potential side effects, echinacea is relatively safe. Even though it needs more testing, you can always choose to use it if you’re hoping to see your cold symptoms end more quickly.
INTERESTING FACTSome of the earliest people to use echinacea as a medicinal herb were Native Americans. The first archaeological evidence dates back to the 18th century.
Echinacea could be beneficial for:
- upper respiratory infections
Things to consider
- It can be tough on the digestive tract and upset the stomach.
- Allergic reactions are possible.
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For years, grapeseed extract, which is available via liquid, tablets, or capsules, has been well-established and applauded for its antioxidant activity. It has potent health benefits, including lowering LDL (bad) cholesterol and reducing symptoms of poor circulation in the leg veins.
StudiesTrusted Source are confirming that regular consumption of grapeseed extract has anticancer effects and seems to halt cancer cell growth.
INTERESTING FACTGrapeseed extract contains the same antioxidants found in wine.
Grapeseed extract could be beneficial for:
- lowering LDL (bad) cholesterol
- leg vein circulation
- blood pressure
Things to consider
- Proceed with caution if you take blood thinners or blood pressure medications, or if you’re about to go in for surgery.
- It may reduce iron absorption.
If you experience anxiety, chances are that someone along the way has recommended that you use lavender essential oil, and for good reason. This aromatic, purple flower has a fairly strong standing among studies, which have mainly focused on its anti-anxiety capacities.
It’s proven to be soothing in a study conducted among dental patients, while another study confirmed that lavender can directly impact mood and cognitive performance. It’s also been commended for its sedative properties to help people get much-needed sleep.
Recently, it’s been discovered that lavender carries anti-inflammatory benefits as well. It’s most effective diluted and applied to the skin or used in aromatherapy, and it has few side effects.
INTERESTING FACTLavender was first brought to Provence, France, by the Romans 2,000 years ago.
Lavender could be beneficial for:
- blood pressure
Things to consider
- It can cause skin irritation.
- It’s poisonous if taken orally.
- It may disrupt hormones when applied undiluted.
With flowers that resemble small daisies, chamomile is another medicinal plant that’s thought to have anti-anxiety properties. Most people know it because it’s a popular tea flavor (one reviewTrusted Source says that over 1 million cups per day are consumed around the world), but it can also be ingested through liquids, capsules, or tablets.
The calming powers of chamomile have been frequently studied, including a 2009 studyTrusted Source that states chamomile is superior to taking a placebo when treating generalized anxiety disorder. One recent study confirmed it’s safe for long-term use, and another recent study looked beyond its use for anxiety and confirmed that it also shows potential in anticancer treatments.
INTERESTING FACTThere are two types of chamomile: German chamomile, an annual that thrives in the Midwest, and Roman chamomile, a perennial that attracts pollinators and smells like apples.
Chamomile could be beneficial for:
Things to consider
- It can cause allergic reactions. There’ve been reports of anaphylaxis.
- It can interact with blood thinners.
Can Food Act as Medicine? All You Need to Know
What you choose to eat has profound effects on your overall health.
Research shows that dietary habits influence disease risk. While certain foods may trigger chronic health conditions, others offer strong medicinal and protective qualities.
Thus, many people argue that food is medicine.
Yet, diet alone cannot and should not replace medicine in all circumstances. Although many illnesses can be prevented, treated, or even cured by dietary and lifestyle changes, many others cannot.
This article explains the medicinal effects of food, including which foods should and shouldn’t be used for healing.
Many nutrients in food promote health and protect your body from disease.
Eating whole, nutritious foods is important because their unique substances work synergistically to create an effect that can’t be replicated by taking a supplement.
Vitamins and minerals
Although your body only needs small amounts of vitamins and minerals, they’re vital for your health.
However, Western diets — high in processed foods and low in whole foods like fresh produce — are typically deficient in vitamins and minerals. Such deficiencies can substantially increase your risk of disease (1Trusted Source).
For example, insufficient intakes of vitamin C, vitamin D, and folate may harm your heart, cause immune dysfunction, and increase your risk of certain cancers, respectively (2Trusted Source, 3Trusted Source, 4Trusted Source).
Beneficial plant compounds
Nutritious foods, including vegetables, fruits, beans, and grains, boast numerous beneficial compounds, such as antioxidants.
In fact, studies demonstrate that people whose diets are rich in polyphenol antioxidants have lower rates of depression, diabetes, dementia, and heart disease (6Trusted Source, 7Trusted Source, 8Trusted Source, 9Trusted Source).
Protein and healthy fats
The protein and fat in whole, nutritious foods play various critical roles in your body.
Rocasea is a skin disease, particularly occurring on your face that starts with redness. Also, known as acne rocasea, it is seen on cheeks and nose along with firm red nodules resembling acne. Some symptoms of this problem are burning and stinging feeling, red gritty eyes and rhinophyma.
The prime cause behind the rocasea is unidentified bacteria or fungi that affect the hair follicles, also genetic skin problems can lead to rocasea. Especially, this skin disease is common amongst people living in the hot weather or excessive sun exposure, and consumes hot beverages or spicy foods excessively.
Below given are some home remedies that work effectively in curing rocasea.
Fresh cucumber is always welcomed to treat any skin problems in the field of home remedies. Consequently you can prepare cucumber mask by blending fresh cucumber and apply it on your face. Rinse with cool water after 30 minutes of application. Using a month daily, you can see the result.
Brown apple can be one of the best guide for your skin as natural remedies. Transform your apple in a smooth and tendered face pack to apply on your affected area. Rinse after the pack dries. It is recommended to use this pack every day to get the proper result.
Aloevera is another well known natural ingredient to fight against the disease of rocasea. Either you can use it on your face as pack or you can intake aloevera orally to reduce rocasea. Both forms are quiet effective.
Oatmeal is also useful in treating rocasea. Oatmeal can assist you to reduce the redness of your face as well as itching sensation. You need to dilute 2 tablespoons of oatmeal in little quantity of water and then apply on the affected area of rocasea.
Chamomile oil is regarded as one of the natural oil to reduce rocasea. You can keep this oil in fridge and then with a dampen fabric apply on your face to flare up the symptoms of rocasea.
If you have rosacea, washing your face regularly with green tea will help immensely. You can also rub the extract of green tea on the affected areas as the herb has anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties that cures rosacea. Green tea can be simply used as a compress as well.
Health and Its Significance
Do you like it when you have a fever and can’t go out to play? Of course not! No one likes being sick! However, despite trying our best, at times we do fall sick! It could be because of a change in the weather or any specific virus. You can never predict. But, the absence of diseasesalso doesn’t mean that you are healthy! In this chapter, we will look at the concept of the importance of health for our well-being. But, before we proceed, do you know why good health is important?
Health & It’s Significance
Why is Good Health Important?
Cells are the fundamental units of all living organisms. They are made up of a variety of chemical substances. Cells move from place to place. Even if the cell is not moving, a lot of repairing still goes on within it. Besides this, there are various specialized activities in our body, like the heart pumps blood, the kidney filters the urine, the brain is constantly thinking, the lungs help in breathing.
This way, there is a lot of interconnectedness between the various organs in our body. For all these activities, our body needs energy and rawmaterial. Food is necessary for cell and tissue functioning. Therefore, if you are not well, all your bodily activities start getting hampered.
Importance of Health
Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well being. For a healthy life cycle, a person needs to have a balanced diet and has to regularly exercise. One must also live in a proper shelter, take enough sleep and have good hygiene habits. So, how do we ensure that we are doing all the right things to have a good health? Let’s spread the awareness for the importance of health:
- The health of all organisms depends on their surrounding or their environment. Our social environment is an important factor in our individual health.
- Public cleanliness is important for individual health. Therefore, we must ensure that we collect and clear the garbage regularly. We must also contact an agency who can take the responsibility of clearing the drains. Without this, you could severely affect your health.
- We need food for health and for food, we will have to earn money by doing work. For this, the opportunity to do work has to be available. Good economic condition and jobs are, therefore, needed for individual health
- We need to be happy in order to be truly healthy. If we mistreat each other and are afraid of each other, we cannot be healthy or happy. Social equality and harmony are important for individual health.
What is Disease?
When one or more organs or systems of our body are adversely affected as in their normal functioning is interrupted, we say that we are not healthy i.e., we have a disease. Disease means something is wrong with our body and that we feel unwell or malfunction of the body.Our health is affected not only by unbalanced diet but also by diseases, infections, poverty, large family, overcrowded houses etc. The diseases are normally caused by external organisms (microbes) intersecting the body’s natural barriers and invading into our healthy body. Such organisms can cause a havoc if our immune system doesn’t handle it right away.
Solved Question for You
Q. Write a short note on the types of diseases.
Answer: Diseases are of two types:
- Acute: These last for the only short period of time. These do not cause a long-term bad effect on human health. For example, cold, cough, typhoid, cholera etc. In acute diseases, the person gets better and becomes well within a week or so.
- Chronic: These last for a long time even as much as a lifetime. For example, Tuberculosis, diabetes, arthritis, cancer etc